Saturday, May 23, 2020

Women and Science Free Essay Example, 3750 words

In what is now called the First Wave of Feminism, the feminist movement in the U. K began a little before Ada s death, in 1850, when feminists like Barbara Bodichon and Bessie Parkes began an organised movement with its headquarters at Langham Place in London, eventually going on to publish the English Woman s Journal from 1858 onwards. The First Wave of Feminism brought about reform in the girls secondary school system, also allowing girls to take national examinations, thus opening venues of higher education and access to professions like science and medicine. 4 Ada Byron could not, unfortunately, benefit from the achievements of the First Wave of Feminism. She was barred from taking higher education, as women were not considered worthy for such studies during her time. She abandoned her scholarly hopes and, in keeping with social conventions, got married {to the Earl of Lovelace} and eventually gave birth to 3 children. Ada was forced to remain away from her beloved mathematics for a long period of 9 years. The fourth momentous event in Ada s life that occurred in 1843 brought about a radical about-turn vis- -vis her relationship with the study. We will write a custom essay sample on Women and Science or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page This culminated in Ada publishing an article in 1843 where she foretold that a calculating machine such as Babbage s Analytical Engine could be employed to create graphics, compose music and put to scientific as well as practical uses.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Punishing Race A Continuing American Dilemma - 979 Words

Professor Michael Tonry is the McKnight Presidential Professor of Criminal Law and Policy, director of the Institute on Crime and Public Policy of the University of Minnesota. He is one of the leading scholars of crime and punishment who has put race and race disparity at for front of the American Criminal Justice System and written many scholarly books on the topic. In his other works he has shaped an image of how racially minded the Criminal Justice System is and how such injustice has been applied to African Americans. Based on Tonry`s credentials, the book reviewed in this paper complies valuable and trustworthy statistics and information, and also author`s own experience in this particular field. The book â€Å"Punishing Race: A Continuing American Dilemma† is a work of Michael Tonry in which he tries to address the issue of disparity and discrimination toward African Americans and how systematically attitudes and mind set have shaped laws and limitations by the governmen t on this particular group of American society. The main question to which the author tries to find answer is: â€Å"How do that a long series of criminal justice policies that do special damage to black people were conceived, adopted, and carried out in a country in which few whites any longer believe in white supremacy or black inferiority† (Tonry, 2011, preface X). The question presented by Tonry is very important for the American society because it addresses an issue that not everyone wants toShow MoreRelatedPolice Violence Is More Than Violent Policing1369 Words   |  6 PagesBernasconi, R. (2014). When police violence is more than violent policing. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Chrysanthemums And The Ones Who Walked Away From Omelas

Symbolism is a prominent part of many short stories. Within the stories â€Å"The Smile†, â€Å"The Chrysanthemums†, and â€Å"The Ones Who Walked Away From Omelas†, symbolism is heavily relied on to fully understand and comprehend each story. Although there are many literary devices used within the short stories, symbolism is predominantly used to develop and bring forth the message of each story. Beginning with â€Å"The Smile†, message is conveyed through it’s symbolism. Their society was upset by the damage done to them by the people who had come before them. They threw festivals to express their hatred of the previous society. The painting within the story, to the townsfolk, is a reminder of the past; moreover, they see it as the old society mocking†¦show more content†¦Seemingly, the flowers represent Elisa. She believes she is strong and tough and able to accomplish anything thrown her way; however, taken for granted as she is only a woman allowed to look and act accordingly. Surrounding the flowers is a wire fence set up to keep out predators and to separate the flowers from the rest of the farm. The wire fence is symbolic in the fact that it is identical to the world Elisa lives in. Elisa is contained within the farm, unable to explore or leave without the help of someone else. Elisa is stuck on the farm, isolated from the rest of the world so t hat she can be kept safe. Naive and unaware of how the world works, her husband keeps her on the farm to protect her from harm. When Elisa gives the chrysanthemum to the travelling merchant, she gives him a small piece of herself. Later, as her and her husband are driving to town, she sees the flower tossed aside as though it was nothing; as a result, she realizes she could never go off on and live the way the merchant had. The flowers embody her character still, and how out of her home without protection, the world can be harsh and cruel. In short, Elisa’s isolation leaves her ignorant, unable to understand how callous the world is, and comes to the bleak realization that she can’t live a life anywhere outside of her fence. Because of how women were treated, constantly pushed down and unable to pursue their interests, Elisa is left unable to learn what life has to offer. Learning

Is Balochistan the New Bangladesh Free Essays

THESIS STATEMENT: Despite the similar unfair treatment towards Balochistan, like Bangladesh; Balochistan is not the same situation as Bangladesh. Ever since Pakistan came into being it has faced numerous challenges, some of which have been crucial to overcome in light of its handicapped economy, and lack of a headstrong goverment. A very crucial point along these years has been the loss of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, which revolted against the government of Pakistan due to unfair treatment of their people and gained independence for themselves with the help of the Indian Army, when matters were beyond bad. We will write a custom essay sample on Is Balochistan the New Bangladesh? or any similar topic only for you Order Now The case in discussion here is the recent turmoil in Balochistan; their lack of autonomy, lack of security, and extraction of resources. Does that make Balochistan the next Bangladesh? According to the following analysis, not so much. Social Similarities: The cry for independence in East Pakistan that led to the formation of Bangladesh started from the language riots. When East Pakistan, which made up 60 percent of Pakistan’s population, was denied their right to Bengali being the national language; they became infuriated since most people there couldn’t speak Urdu or English very well. This need for their language brought about the start of the Bengali nationalism. The angry Bengalis of East Pakistan started rioting massively, fighting for their language; hence uniting the youth and the students towards one cause and starting the Bengali Nationalist Movement. The nationalism in Bengalis and their protests towards the wrong being done to them in other ways such as politically and economically brought about their first cry for independence. Similarly in Balochistan, the exploitation of their people, the atrocities done to them, and unfair conditions has led to the Balochistan Nationalist Movements. Organizations like BLA (Balochistan Liberation Army), BRA (Balochistan Republican Army), and BLF (Balochistan Liberation Fund) are all working towards supporting Baloch nationalism and fighting for their rights. Even though the cause of this nationalism in Balochistan does not have much to do with language, the fact that this nationalism has evolved and is now pressing the Balochis towards wanting independence, is a striking similarity etween Balochistan and Bangladesh. It can be said that this nationalism is what is driving both Balochis and Bengalis towards the larger picture of wanting independence. Differences: Even though socially Bangladesh and Balochistan are similar with their nationalism standing high and above, there are a lot of social differences that keep them apart from falling under the same situation. In Bangl adesh, the Bengalis were a lot more united as a whole. Since the beginning Bengalis never wanted to be divided, but when they were done so against their will and then given to a federation that didn’t allow its language, agitation had built up amongst the Bengalis. This nationalism amongst them was very uniting, and helped them in the later years when they faced other unfair conditions politically and economically. So the fact that their leader Sheikh Mujib Ur Rehman and their different Nationalist movements led by the students were very united in their goals made their nationalism even stronger. It can be said that those leading the protests in Bangladesh wanted the goodwill of all the Bengalis and wanted their voice heard. However, in Balochistan that unity is seen missing. Historically, Balochistan was a large land mass which had different tribes living together, divided into borders, each on their own. Balochistan as a primordial ethnicity never existed. The Mughals had first set up Kaalat, with a king/emperor given the title of ‘Khan’. Slowly, five different states were set up in Balochistan, each with their own leader. Later on when Pakistan came into being, these 5 states were still pretty much separate without a larger name of a geo political entity. The name Balochistan was given to these tribes’ years after they had been a part of Pakistan, in 1971 when Balochistan was made a province. Slowly and gradually the political issues started tearing the Balochis into protesting for their rights. Since the tribes had been divided and appointed Sardars/chiefs to rule them, these Sardars started manipulating their own Balochi people into getting the government to fulfill their demands. Hence the Sardars would light up a fire, the people would start riots and the Government of Pakistan would pay them to calm them down. This continued until the Balochis backfired on their own Sardars and kicked them out of Balochistan. In light of this, it can be said that Balochistan isn’t very united in its cry for independence/autonomy. The different organizations working for the Balochistan Nationalist Movement don’t work together, since they come from different families and have different agendas of their own. The Balochis were led down by their own Sardars who should have been holding them together and protecting them, but instead they were not willing to put aside their own agendas, goals and conflicts; this made the different Sardars stand against one another and not come together to stand for a larger cause for their people. Hence Balochistan is way different from Bangladesh in the sense that it lacks Bangladesh’s unity and strength that came from their union in Nationalism. Economical Similarities: Balochistan and Bangladesh both present one similarity, which is economical neglect from the rest of Pakistan. When Bangladesh was East Pakistan, it formed 60% of Pakistan’s population; however, resources were put more towards the establishment of West Pakistan, as compared to East Pakistan. Hence, East Pakistan was always economically ignored and not given higher weightage in line of the fact that they formed a larger portion of Pakistan. Resources were taken from East Pakistan and put to the betterment of West Pakistan; later in the years Ayub Khan’s industrialization plan, which was the golden age of Pakistani Capitalism, also involved setting up industries in West Pakistan, instead of East Pakistan. In the very same manner, Balochistan is also being economically neglected. Even though Balochistan is a desert and is largely barren, that does not mean that it lacks its fair share of natural resources. The land of Balochistan contains natural resources like Sui Gas and Rico Diq, which are worth hundreds of billions of dollars making it one of the world’s potentially richest regions. Yet, the people of Balochistan live in poverty, deprived of clean drinking water, education, and the natural gas that their own land pumps to the rest of Pakistan. This makes it a similar target of extraction of resources and lack of constructive attention, just like Bangladesh was. Geo Strategic Differences: Even though similar in the unfair treatment they received economically, Both Bangladesh and Balochistan are different from one another from a geo strategic point of view. Talking about Balochistan, it is the largest land mass of Pakistan, is full of natural resources like oil, gas, coal, gold and many other precious materials and minerals, which are largely valuable to Pakistan. It plays a very important role on the foreign affairs of Pakistan by sharing borders with Iran, and Afghanistan. Protected by the surrounding Arabian Sea as well as mountainous ranges, Balochistan is connected to CARs through the Chaman Pass. Countries like China take interest in developing the Gawadar port in Balochistan; whereas the US also has immense interest in Balochistan’s large land mass; hence its unique geo strategic position is very important for Pakistan. Bangladesh on the other hand was never much important for Pakistan from a geo strategic point of view. Since East Pakistan was thousands of miles away from West Pakistan, with a large mass of enemy territory in between; Bangladesh never held any geo strategic importance. Moreover, Bangladesh didn’t have the billions of dollars worth of resources, neither did it have any importance to the US which further decreased its geographical importance for Pakistan. The US never held any interest in East Pakistan, since they didn’t sign SEATO, which was a strategic treaty. The geographical importance of Balochistan makes it a lot more valuable for Pakistan, also since if Pakistan loses Balochistan, it basically losses its majority land area, as well as disrupts relations with its connecting countries. However, Bangladesh didn’t hold any such importance and it was always an understood fact that losing Bangladesh would be a lot easier, if ever there was an enemy attack. Political Similarities: Bangladesh was a victim of political instability from Pakistan’s end since the very beginning. The reason Bangladesh and Balochistan want away from Pakistan is the unfair treatment they have received. This unfair treatment varies greatly between the two, but brings them under the same light in the manner that it is highly uncalled for. Bangladesh was always denied its fair share of representation as East Pakistan, similarly Balochistan isn’t given any autonomous power to control its own province; the provincial government in Balochistan has been made highly handicapped with the little power it is granted. Differences: Politically, both Bangladesh and Balochistan fall under unfair treatment; however, the political situations in both areas are very different. When Bangladesh was still East Pakistan, the largest political problem it faced was the fact that it wasn’t granted the political representation in the government that it rightfully deserved, seeing that it was the majority area of Pakistan. From the day Pakistan was formed, till the years that followed, it was obvious that with the government being based in West Pakistan, The majority would be controlled by the minority. In his article Bangladesh: why it happened? G. W. Choudhary writes, â€Å"Pakistan began its political career under a parliamentary system modeled on Westminster and under a federal constitution. But neither the parliamentary system nor the federation was genuine. The constitutional forms and trappings of democracy only provided a cloak for rule by the few who were able to concentrate power in their own hands. During eleven years (1947-58) of so called parliamentary democracy, there was not a single general election, and the provincial elections were described and ‘a farce, mockery and a fraud upon the electorate’. In light of this it can further be explained how East Pakistan never received its fair share of representation in the government. Moreover, there were denied their rightful power when their political party, Awami League won the elections in 1970-71. From the years that followed from 1947, when Pakistan was formed, till 1971, when Bangladesh was formed; East Pakistan was never given its fair share, neit her in the army, nor in the government. Hence they were always politically weak despite the fact that there was immense unity amongst their own organizations and political parties, working for the Bengalis. It must be noted that East Pakistan was always politically united amongst its own people; as in there weren’t sub divided feuds amongst the Bengalis that kept them politically at par with each other. In Balochistan this unity was missing. Since Balochistan had never been a single, united political entity; the Sardars were divided in their ambitions and had a tone of feuds amongst themselves. These caused the biggest political weakness of Balochistan. Even though just like Bangladesh, Balochistan never got the representation in army, or government that it asked for; what differentiates the two is the fact that Balochistan fell victim to its own internal feuds. In his article Balochistan is no Bangladesh, Sushant Sareen describes this as, â€Å"The trouble is that while many of the tribal Sardars, in their hearts ight be supportive of the Baloch cause, or are being forced by public sentiment as well as the circumstances on the ground to pay lip-service to the aspirations of the Baloch people (for example, Akhtar Mengal insisting on a dialogue with the Pakistani authorities under the aegis of the UN), they are not willing to put aside their personal egos in the service of Baloch nationalism. Their personal ambitions, feuds, rivalries, a desire to be one-up on their fellow Sardars makes it impossible for all of them to come together for the larger cause of their people. â⠂¬  Hence their leadership issues form a major political drawback for Balochistan. Another major political issue that separates Balochistan from being the next Bangladesh is the high importance of anarchy in Balochistan. Even though the legal constitution doesn’t allow for there to be a Jirga system that prevails in Balochistan; but since the judiciary is weak and Balochis don’t trust it, they turn to the Jirga system. Since the Pakistan government never did anything substantial to stop this Jirga system, it has deep rooted itself amongst Balochistan, turning it into anarchy in the name of democracy. This has given way to the Balochistan game. Different countries have come and started to set up their roots in Balochistan trying to take it over. MILITARY Similarities: On 25th March, 1971, Operation Searchlight was started; where six brigades of Pak Army moved into East Pakistan and arrested workers; people of East Pakistan were sexually assaulted by the army and were left crippling while their governor Sheikh Mujeed Ur Rehman was arrested. East Pakistan suffered sexual, physical, and psychological torture at the hands of their country’s army. Similarly, people in Balochistan have suffered and are still suffering at the hands of the Pakistan army. Missing people cases are on the high, bodies are found lying around after days of waiting and the torture just doesn’t seem to stop. This forms part of the major problems of Balochistan, which is not enough security. Even though this similarity of torture at the hands of the army remains, there’s no denying the fact that its intensity in Balochistan is far greater than that in Bangladesh. In light of all the above mentioned similarities and differences, a conclusion can be reached about whether or not Balochistan is going to be the next Bangladesh. Despite the fact that the similarities remain, making it look like the same way nationalism and nationalist movememnts were a start towards the larger independence of Bangladesh, Balochistan remains a different situation. It’s safe to say that Balochistan is no Bangladesh. That statement lies on the fact that the problem of Balochistan is beyond that of unfair treatment by the government. Balochistan faces what is a severe case of lack of unity, unlike Bangladesh which was always a lot more united in its attempt to gain independence. Balochistan is a case of crippled inner politics, encouraged by the Pakistani government that further weakens it towards not being able to gain anything substantial. BIBLIOGRAPHY: * http://www. chowrangi. com/why-balochistan-is-burning. html * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_Bangladesh#Creation_of_Pakistan * http://www. jstor. org/discover/10. 2307/2613440? uid=2129;uid=2;uid=70;uid=4;sid=21101363476631 * http://www. thedailystar. net/forum/2011/December/on. htm * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bengali_Language_Movement http://bangladeshwatchdog. blogspot. com/2012/02/bangladesh-and-now-balochistan. html * http://idsa. in/idsacomments/BalochistanisnoBangladesh_ssareen_190110 * http://www. defence. pk/forums/strategic-geopolitical-issues/165565-balochistan-pakistan-s-second-bangladesh. html * http://blogs. thenews. com. pk/blogs/2012/02/saving-balochistan/ * http://www. nation. com. pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/columns/03-Oct-2012/the-balochistan-plan * ht tp://www. bangladeshfirst. com/docdetails. php? cid=9;docid=1 How to cite Is Balochistan the New Bangladesh?, Essay examples

Plan and Conduct Group Activities free essay sample

The setting of this retrieve art session will be in a safe and calming community centre environment. B. An explanation of why the program is appropriate for this target group Creative art can help provide an empowering outlet, where the telling of a battered womens experience does not have to be spoken aloud, but can be communicated through the language and redirection to creative art thinking. Creative art can also be a way of assisting survivors or current domestic violence sufferers to: Safely express and contain there sometimes difficult ; frightening feelings- Cope with traumatic memories and triggers Support emotional stabilization and strengthen a sense of safety- Empower themselves in a group setting C. Explain how group members or potential members are being involved in planning for the group The group planners will involve participants and potential participants by holding an informal meeting at the first session. If group members are feeling nervous and reserved an ice breaker exercise may be used to get the group comfortable ; started. We will write a custom essay sample on Plan and Conduct Group Activities or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The meeting will be held to brainstorm ideas ; to discuss activities to be engaged in. The participants shall also come up with ; agree upon group agreements e. . Rules and responsibilities to the group such as: * Punctuality e. G. Group start time * Respecting all members of the group * Commitment to the group * Confidentiality of group members AIMS

Friday, May 1, 2020

Energy Planning and Policy Program

Questions: 1. Why is it sometimes argued that under rate of return regulation, capital will tend to beoverutilized, and labour - underutilized?2. Please define the meaning of following concepts in the context of regulating electricitymonopoly networks?a) Asymmetry of Informationb) Regulatory Capturec) Regulatory Burden 3.Develop a philosophical perspective on the appropriateness of Rate-of-Return (Costplus)and Incentive-based (CPI-X type) regulation for regulating electricitytransmission networks. Answers: 1. Under the rate of return regulation, recommendations to have capital over utilized is common due to the following various reasons.Increased capital leads to increase of money supply. The increase of capital will be connected with the increase of investments, which are likely to yield returns. Therefore, through the over utilization of capital, more money supply is achieved in an economy and the economic growth is achieved.It has direct connection with the economy. Over utilization of capital helps to build the economy. The economy is enhanced on both social, economic and financial sector. The overutilization of capital ensures that the money is on circulation and therefore able to loft the economy. Recommendations for the underutilization are also recommendation because of various reasons. The labor is an expense, which is likely to lead to underdevelopment. Underutilization can be carried out in an economy in order to control the expense and ensure that the economy is managed (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014). The control of the strength of currency. The labor dictates the amount of currency in supply. Underutilizing labor will lead to little currency is in supply to the economy. This can be used as a measure to ensure that appreciation of the currency to the required level is achieved. 2. Asymmetry of information the asymmetry of information applies to the monopoly businesses such as electricity distributors where they get different contracts to estimate the cost of their products for proper supply to the consumers without overburdening the consumer and generating losses. Regulatory capture in the electricity monopoly businesses, there is a body with the mandate to ensure that the consumers are not overburdened (Adams et al. 2007). Failure for the body to represent the interest of the consumers and diverting its mandate to political and individual interests is what is known as regulatory capture. Regulatory burden these are policies are regulations which are thought to be reducing the time and money for the industry to grow. The regulatory burdens may hinder the increase of the investment in an industry due to the increase of the costs of paying for the regulatory policies. 3. The rate of return in the regulation of electricity industry helps to understand the risks and reward. It helps to define the amount of investment to be set up and the benefits to different parties. In addition, the rate of return helps to control the overall price for the benefit of the consumer and the provider. It analyzes the measures to be taken to ensure that the costs are manageable in the case of the provider and can be paid by the consumer on the other end. Incentives helps to reduce the cost of running the electricity transmission and placing rules on the provider on regions to place their transmission lines (Philips 1993). The provided incentives to the electricity transmission will have conditions on the areas, which need to be operated. The incentive based also helps to control the overall costs of installing the transmission lines for both the consumer and producer. Therefore, the incentive based ensures that the industry is regulated on the amount they have to charge the consumer. References Adams, G., Hayes, S., Weierter, S., and Boyd, J. (October 2007). Regulatory Capture: Managing the Risk ICE Australia, International Conference and Events. Bureau of Labor Statistics (November 2014). The increased Supply of Underutilized Labor. Monthly Labor Review. Philips, C., F., (1993). The Regulation of Public Utilities: Theory and Practice, Arlington, VA: Utilities Report, Inc.